Syllabus for Summer 2003: Advanced Writing: On the Natural Sciences and Technology

Dr Ellen Moody. My website address: htm. The URL for the Teaching Section of my website address: m

Advanced Writing: On the Natural Sciences and Technology:

This is an advanced writing course. In some ways it may remind you of the introductory college freshmen writing course you took a few semesters ago. We will talk about how to write plainly and clearly, about the ways of constructing arguments, about how to synthesize materials to compose a research paper, about punctuation, documentation -- about, in short, everything we can think of having to do with writing; and we will read and discuss essays and stories.

The course will, however, differ from the introductory freshman composition course in that you will be asked to use these skills to read prose by scientists about various aspects of science or the applied practices of a specific discipline. Since there is no science prerequisite for this course, our perspective and discussions cannot be specialized or narrowly-focused on any single science or group of sciences, even if a fairly large number of students in the class are majoring in a particular science or group of sciences.. The background knowledge assumed is that of the typical generally-educated reader who has attained Junior status in a senior college.

Required Texts (in the order we will read them):

Required Films:

Two Short Bibliographies

Required Writing:

You are required to write two essays and one take-home exam outside class; to write two book reviews and one film review in class; and to give one short talk in class.

First Essay (#1)

Writing About How a Machine or Scientific Process Works or About the Composition of a Objects which has been designed and built (or created) by people. The basic aim of the science essay is often explanation, and the basis of good scientific writing an ability to use scientific and technical or complicated English in ways that a reader can understand. So the first of our two essays is an exercise in which you use technical language and/or scientific concepts in order to explain something in a clear and engaging manner. Please chose from among the following suitable topics:

The sort of object or process you are to choose is something which is man-made or depends on a knowledge or manipulation or transformations of nature which are done by people. It can therefore also be an object that is the result of a mechanical or artificial or chemical process initiated by man, such as glass or steel.

You can describe the process by which the object has been made or its history. If you are a humanities or social science major or would prefer to try something less technically-rooted, you can also explain processes which use things which occur in nature and which we use with little transformation by man. Cooking is not only an art; it is based on knowledge of nature. How did a bunch of eggs and flower and milk become a cake? How did people learn to brew beer? What's wine? There's a history behind ices, cloth-making and the invention and use of rope.

And remember a machine or man-made object need not be made of metal or plastic, and it can be used for aesthetic pleasure or emotional uplift: you can explain how any musical instrument works or the history of how it comes to take the form it does. A ballet-shoe is a man-made object which enables women to dance on the edge of their toes. Furniture and toys may be included. How does a zipper work?

Your object need not be something technologically sophisticated; it can be a light-bulb or a pencil or a fountain pen. You can look at obsolete or older inventions: the windmill or a medieval knight's armor. You can explain the process whereby a book is made or history of book-making.

You can also explain intellectual inventions like calendars.

You can write this satirically. Pretend you are a person from a community with no knowledge or experience of such objects and use your description to criticize the society which uses such objects. You can write this personally: tell how you or other members of your household or school use the object. In all cases, you should have a thesis-statement and a context. You should in the essay include the reason why your reader ought to know how your machine or process works. You don't want your reader to be asking him or herself, 'why should I read this?'

To those who are saying to themselves, 'I'm not a scientist, I don't know the first thing about how things work. I turn the key in my car and it goes, period', I say, come in at the level that is natural to you and that will be natural to a college-level reader.

Remember clarity is a special concern in the natural sciences and technical writing. Your aim is to transmit technical information accurately and in a way that the reader will understand sufficiently to be able to use what he reads. The intent here is to practice using language which is jargon-free and analogies which actually help readers to visualize and explain something.

It is suggested you do some minimal research, and, therefore, you must document your sources and all verbatim quotations or paraphrases. We will review documentation before this essay is due. You may of course do research, but if you do please make sure your source is reliable and respected (e.g., the Encyclopedia Britannica or a specialized encyclopedia in the relevant field is a wonderful source, but World Book , Colliers, and such like junk are out. If you take information from the World Wide Web or an e-mail group of any kind, be prepared to verify the expertise of the person whose e- mail you are quoting or the respectability of the host of the website whose information you are relying upon. Length: minimum 3-5 double-spaced typed pages.

Second Essay (#2)

The Science of Medicine. Two of our books are about the science of medicine as it is really learnt and practiced in our world. The idea here is to go into -- in as much depth as we can -- a single area of science which is important to us all and is a huge industry in our society which employs many scientifically-, and technically-educated people. We will read two books which are partly anthropological and sociological examinations of how the science of medicine is practiced and experienced in our hospitals. I ask you to write an essay about how a specific illness, or problem someone has which is treated medically, is experienced in our society, from both the viewpoints of the patient (or customer) and the physician (or anyone who practices some form of medicine). This will require that you understand the illness or condition the individual has, how it relates to what we define as health, its aetiology, and the treatments that are offered to help the individual cope or get better.

  1. You may write about how an illness has been treated in the past and is treated today. It need not be a lethal epidemic, but there is a good deal of literature on such illnesses. Examples: small pox, TB, influenza, cholera, measles, AIDS.
  2. You may write about a particular case history, kind of medical problem or condition or an ethical dilemma. These include prolonging the life of someone who has permanently lost consciousness and procedures which are controversial. Examples: miscarriages (not well understood), artificial insemination, abortion, various kinds of very expensive procedures to replace organs, cancer procedures. You will find ideas for this in a number of the essay-chapters in Perri Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure.
  3. The subject of your essay need not be a dramatic procedure or unusual condition. Just as interesting and perhaps more important are conditions people develop which we today define as illness because we can hope to provide care or therapy. Such conditions include diabetes, deverticulosis, ulcers, all sorts of problems with the internal organization of the human body, epilepsy, migraine headaches. You will find many ideas in Melvin Konner's Becoming A Doctor.
  4. You may write some aspect of the medical profession. You can write about the way a hospital is organised; the education required of doctors and nurses or technicians. Questions you can ask yourself include: should nurse practitioners replace doctors in some aspect of daily care; if so, do they have to be better educated? what do we mean by better educated? Both Klass's and Konner's books should help you write your essay in this vein.
  5. You may write about a particular procedure; why it has evolved and what is its efficacy. Again, you will find many ideas in Konner's Becoming a Doctor.
  6. You may discuss how our society should control and pay for medical treatment since it can powerfully affect individual lives and is expensive.
  7. I encourage students to write about their own experiences or those of close family members or friends. Part of the point of this part of the term's work is to encourage the student to think for him or herself, to take initiatives, and to consider science and technology in the context of real people's lives and the social and psychological and economical realities which impinge directly on real people.

This is to be a researched essay, but you are also encourged to use personal experiences. Length: minimum 3-5 double-spaced typed pages.

Four good sources are required, but one of them may be Konner's Becoming a Doctor or Perri Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure Another may be an interview with an experts or people who have had the illness you are writing about.

The Annotated Bibliography: As part of the researched essay, you will be asked to hand in an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography provides short summaries and evaluations of the books and essays used in a research paper. The skill of synopsis will be reviewed. Models will be provided.

An Abstract: You will also be asked to hand in an abstract of your own essay. We will in class learn to and practice the art of writing abstracts, of summarising, paraphrasing, and writing synopses.

Two Book Reviews and One Film Review:

Analysing Science Writing. You will be asked to write two book reviews and one film review in class. If you become a successful professional in any field, you will find yourself asked to review books, articles and (nowadays) probably films. These will be "open book" in-class essays. In other words, you can bring books, any notes and any drafts you like.

There is a specific format which is followed which we will learn about. The first review is to be on both Feynman books when we finish reading them and is to be written in class half-way through the term. The second review is to be on both Konner's Becoming a Doctor: A Journey of Initation in Medical School and Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure: Four Years of Medical School. The third review is to be on a film of your choice taken from the four we will watch together in class, i.e., The Pleasure of Finding Things Out and Last Journey of a Genius; 2) Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude; or 3) Wit. The first book review will take the place of a midterm; the second book review and film review will replace a final. These reviews are intended to provide practice on how to select, elaborate upon and judge books and sources. They are also intended to make you think about what is the best way to convey scientific information and how science is experienced in our world to general audiences. We will discuss how a good book review usually includes some or all of the following points:

  1. the book's context and intended audience;
  2. its thesis or theses;
  3. your evaluative statement about this thesis and the book's content;
  4. a synopsis or summary of its contents;
  5. an analysis of the book to reveal how the author's background or biases help or hinder the author and the quality of the evidence.

We will discuss how a film review usually includes some or all of the following points:

  1. the film's producer, director, intended audience, and (if applicable) screenplay;
  2. its perspective (or "message");
  3. your evaluative statement about this perspective;
  4. a synopsis or summary of the story or literal content of the film;
  5. an analysis of the film's techniques (presentation of characters, use and juxtaposition of scenes, use of music), dialogue, use of real actors, and particular ending to discuss how well or poorly the film conveyed its perspective.

Take-Home Exam:

This will be a 10 question test in which you will be asked to provide a paragraph length- answer for each question. It cover John Trimble's Writing with Style, and I will hand it out before the day the first book review is due. You are asked to hand it in fully-typed (or printed out) with the first book review.

The Short Talk

. Talk is primary and writing secondary. I believe everyone can learn to write more clearly and enjoy writing more if he or she would only learn to talk on paper, to use the real language he or she might use in the classroom or any other natural situation which demands a certain coherence. Much of the advice you will find in John Trimble's Writing With Style is based on this belief. Most science and technical manuals advise the teacher to schedule short talks on topics taken from scientific issues or subject matter. A technical writer must learn to think of his material as something he is really communicating to someone else. The success of the communication of a technical writer is measured not only by how the reader or listener receives it, but by whether the reader or listener truly understands and can make use of what the technically-educated people say or write.

Thus, each student will be asked to prepare a coherent seven to fifteen minute talk for classroom presentation on the readings from one of the four books which is due the day he or she is scheduled to talk upon. The talks will begin the second week of the semester. Fundamentally what you must do is invent a clear instrumental thesis-statement and develop it coherently and concretely.

The whole class will listen and try to respond; their response will tell the student whether he or she has made him or herself clear; the ensuing dialogue and the student's own later thoughts about either what happened when he or she or another student talked will (it is hoped) teach everyone something about the basis of writing -- again, clear thinking in clear language which comes naturally to the speaker-writer.

Each student is asked to hand in an outline or cards (hand-written or typed) which he or she used to talk from, and I will return this material with the grade for the talk in the following session.

Reading and Class Attendance:

Assumptions behind this course : I think that 1) something is to be gained by coming to class, and that we all can learn a great deal from one another; 2) good writing can be discussed in simple words, and exemplified, learned, practiced, and improved through imitation of models; and 3) the only way to improve one's writing is by much practice over a long period of time.

I have observed that people who write well are people who read a lot; thus:

  1. Classwork : I want everyone to attend class faithfully, to read all the books, and to participate in class discussions. I ask that you limit your unexcused absences to a minimum; I regard weeks of absence as one basis for a failing grade.
  2. Writing Assignments: I have allowed time for 1) revision of each essay; for 2) discussion of student models to help you see what is expected and give you ideas on how to go about a particular task; and for 3) the class as a single group to listen to, analyse and comment on one or more of the essays someone in the class has written. I will try my best to write comments on your essays which can help you how better to organize your thoughts, correct your grammar, and write lucidly and engagingly.


By the end of the term there should be six grades for each student on my roster. These I will average together to form the final grade. I should have two grades for the two essays, two for the book reviews, one for the take-home exam and one for the short talk. All writing assignments and the short talk are due on the day set; if your essay is late, the grade will be pulled down one element for every session, it is late. You must give your talk on the day cited on the short talk schedule so as to ensure only one person will talk on a given day. If you do not give your talk, you must take an F and that will be factored into your final grade.

For the final grade I also take into account 1) your attendance record; 2) your participation in class; and 3) if you came for help if you needed it in planning the essay, thinking up a perspective; organizing and revising it. A teacher can tell when an essay or short talk is done with care, is something really thought about, something for which a genuine self-educational effort was made. I respect hard work and reward it when I see it. I will also reward someone whose work improves.

The Problem of Plagiarism:

DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Plagiarism is defined by the GMU English Department as follows:

'"Plagiarism means using words, opinions, or factual information from another person without giving that person credit. Writers give credit through accepted documentation styles, such as parenthetical citation, footnotes, or end notes; a simple listing of books and articles consulted is not sufficient."

If I suspect you of, or catch you at, plagiarising, I will follow the guidelines of the English department which require that I fail or report you to the Chair of my Department. I am serious about this.

How to contact me outside class:

Without an appointment:

Write to me by e-mail. My preferred address is You can write me 24 hours a day; I look at my mail at least twice a day, and I write back. Be sure to type the e-mail address to which you wish me to send my reply at the end of your message. Please feel free to write me. I will provide thorough commentary on any drafts of essays that you send me through my e-mail addresses.

You can call the phone in the office I use (993-1176) or the English office (993-1160) or leave a message in my box in the English Office, which is in Robinson Hall on the fourth floor. I have no voice mail, and there is no way you can fax me. It is also well to remember that I will have office hours on campus only two afternoons each week. The secretaries don't call me; they simply place put a note in my box. If you attempt to send a late essay to me through an email attachment, it's your responsibility to make make sure it gets to me: the software you use must be compatible with mine, and I must be able to download it; also you must send it to Finally, leaving essays in my box is a chancy business because materials get lost this way. No-one stands guard over the boxes. The safest speediest way to get a late essay to me is to bring it to the next class and give it to me warm hand to warm hand. Better yet, hand it in on time.

With an appointment:

Individual conferences are available by appointment Tuesday and Thursdays from 3:20 to 4:20 pm in Robinson Hall A455. Sign up on the stenography pad which will be placed on the corner of my desk every time the class meets.

Other Help Outside Class

The College of Arts and Sciences runs a University Writing Center where you will find tutors to help you with writing. Their phone number is 703-993-1200. Here is a description of the place and its services:

"The George Mason University Writing Center is a writing resource open to the entire university community, offering free tutoring in a comfortable, supportive atmosphere. During face-to-face and online sessions, trained graduate and undergraduate tutors form a variety of disciplines assist writers at all stage of the writing process. Tutors emphasize positive attitudes and stratgies that help writers at any level learn to evaluate and revise their work in order to be more confident and effective writers."

To find out more and to start to use the services offered, go to and


Week 1: Tuesday/Thurs, June 3rd & 5th

In Class: Tues, 6/2: Course introduction: explanation of syllabus; review thesis statement; how to formulate; what is a line of argument and how to make paragraphs. Short talks explained. The class will watch Christopher Sykes's The Pleasure of Finding Things Out.

Outside Class: for next time read, print out and bring to class The Great American Scream Machine and The Golden Gate Bridge, From Dictaphone to Disc: The Beginnings of the In-Home Concert, Part One of Surely You're Joking, and "The Making of a Scientist" from What Do YOU Care and Chapters 1-5 of Trimble's Writing with Style. Be prepared to be assigned one talk for the term from one of the four books (see attached Short Talk Schedule for choices and dates).

In Class: Thurs, 6/5: I will assign short talks. We'll review the two student models, begin discussion of Richard Feynman, science and general and technical writing.

Outside Class: by Tues, 6/10 read Parts 2 and 3 of Surely You're Joking, the rest of Part One of What Do YOU Care and begin investigations for a topic for Essay #1.

Week 2: Tues/Thurs, June 10th & 12th

In Class: Tues, 6/10: Short Talk 1: RFeynman, boy and young man: The Qualities that Make up the Good Scientist (SYJ, Parts 1 & 2, WDYC, Chapter 1); Short talk 2: RFeynman's criticism of authority (his dramatizations of counterproductive uses of secrecy) at Los Alamos and elsewhere (from SYJ, Parts 2 & 3, especially "Los Alamos from Below" and "Safecracker Meets Safecracker").

Outside Class: Read Trimble, Chapters 6-11.

In Class: Thurs, 6/12: Short Talk 3: RFeynman's Definition of a Good Experiment (from "A Map of the Cat", "A Different Box Of Tools" "The Amateur Scientist" from SJY and "It's as Simple as One, Two Three" from WDYC). Short Talk 4: RFeynman's Critique of Social Hypocrisy: Why Does He Regard Social Lying as So Important and Damaging (you can use whatever chapters you please, but do consider especially "Always Trying to Escape", "The Chief Research Assistant", "Surely You're Joking," "Uncle Sam Doesn't Need You, "Is Electricity Fire", "Judging Books by Their Covers" from SYJ and "What Do YOU Care What Other People Think" from WDYC. We'll do some in- class writing.

Outside Class: By Tues, 6/17: Bring to class a Plan for #1; finish or read Parts 4 and 5 of SYJ and Part Two and Epilogue to WDYC.

Week 3: Tues/Thurs, June 17th and 19th

In Class: Tues, 6/17: PLAN FOR #1 IS DUE. Short Talk 5: RFeynman's ideas on what is real scientific learning: what ought to go on in a classroom, be in a book &c ("O Americano Outre Vez" and "Judging Books by Their Covers" in SYJ and relevant Letters in WDYC, Letters); Short Talk 6: RFeynman's General Attitude Towards Education for all Disciplines in School and in Life ("Who Stole the Door", "Monster Minds," "Is Electricity Fire", "Would You Solve the Dirac Equation" from SYJ and "I Just Shook His Hand" from WDYC). We'll watch Ralph Leighton's The Last Journey of a Genius.

Outside Class: you should be working on Essay #1; read Trimble Chapters 12- 16.

In Class: Thurs, 6/19: Take-home exam on Trimble is handed out. Short Talk 7: RFeynman's Investigations into the Unconscious Mind ("Mee", "Always Trying to Escape", "Altered States" from SYJ); Short Talk 8: RFeynman's Adventures in Art, Music and Anthropology ("But Is It Art?"; "O Americano Outra Vez!," "Bringing Culture to the Physicists", "Found Out in Paris" in SYJ, and relevant "Letters" in WDYC). We'll watch Jones and David R. Axelrod's Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude

Outside Class: On Tuesday (6/24), Essay #1 is due; read, print out and bring to class two student models by Catriona Miller, one on two books by Darwin and one on two books by Feynman two books by Feynman

Week 4: Tues/Thurs, June 24th & 26th

In Class: Tues, 6/24: ESSAY #1 is due; Short Talk 9: Mr Feynman Goes to Washington: Why some NASA officials are driven to delude themselves and mislead the public about the safety, cost and usefulness of shuttle flights ("Mr Feynman Goes to Washington" and "Appendix F" in WDYC); Short Talk 10: A World of Pseudo- and Corrupt Science as Opposed to True Science: "Cargo Cult Learning" in SYJ and "The Value of Science" in WDYC. We'll go over how to write a book review and how it differs from writing a film review.

Outside Class: for Thursday (6/26): prepare to write "open book" Book Review in Class of RFeynman's Surely You're Joking and What Do YOU Care.

In Class: Thurs, 6/26: In-class "open book" book review of Feynman's Surely You're Joking and What Do YOU Care: you will required to write a book review on both Feynman books. Take-home exam on Trimble is due. We'll also have two student papers (examples from #1) read aloud.

Outside Class: for Tuesday (6/25) read Melvin Konner's Becoming a Doctor, Preface, Introduction, and Chapters 1 - 4; Perri Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure, Introduction and Pre-Clinical Years" (Section 1) or pp. 13-52. Read, print out and bring to class student models for Essay #2: Ritalin and ADHD; Improving Life with Arthritis, Unravelling the Mystery and Caesarean Childbirth: A Modern Convenience?

Week 5: Tues, July 1st

In Class: Tues, 7/1: Short talk 11: Konner: "Basic Clinic Skills" and "Emergency Ward Surgery" (Chapters 2-3) from Becoming a Doctor; Short Talk 12: Konner: "Anesthesiology" and "Ward Surgery" (Chapters 4-5) from Becoming a Doctor; Short Talk 13: Klass: "Introduction" and "The Pre-Clinical Years" from A Not Entirely Benign. We will go over Essay #2 and what is required.

Outside class: You should prepare a Plan for Essay #2; read the rest of Konner's Becoming a Doctor (to finish by July 23rd)

Week 6: Tues/Thurs, July 8th & 10th

In Class: Tues, 7/8: PLAN for #2 due. Short Talk 14: Konner: "Neurosurgery and Neurology" and Psychiatry" The Mind-Body Problem" (Chapters 6-7) from Becoming a Doctor>. Short Talk 15: Konner: "Obstetrics" and "Gynecology" (Chapters 9-10) from Becoming a Doctor; Short Talk 16: Konner: "Pathology: The Aspect of Death" and "Medicine I: A Failure of the Heart" (Chapters 11-12) from Becoming a Doctor; In class: How to Write an Abstract; how to write an Annotated Bibliography.

Outside class: For Thurs (7/10): Do Exercise I and and bring to class.

In Class: Thurs, 7/10: Short Talk 17: Konner: "Medicine II and III: Deathwatches and Healing and Hope" (Chapters 13-14) from Becoming a Doctor; Short Talk 18: Konner: "Medicine III: Healing and Hope" and "The Fourth Year": Highlights and Heroes" (Chapters 15-16) from Becoming a Doctor. We will go over the Practice I for an Abstract and then try to watch the whole of Mike Nichols and Emma Thompson's film, Wit.

Outside class: For Tues, 7/15: you should be working on Essay #2 and read the rest of Perri Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure (to finish by July 23rd). Do Excercise II and bring to class.

Week 7, Tues/Thurs, July 15th & 17th

In Class. Tues, 7/15: Short Talk 19: Klass: From "The Clinical Years" in A Not Entirely Benign: "The First Time," "Crying in the Hospital," "Camels, Zebras and Fascinomas, Learning the Language;" Short Talk 20: Klass: From "The Clinical Years in A Not Entirely Benign: "Macho, Tempos, The Scrubbed and the Unscrubbed; Emergency Room;" Short Talk 21: Klass and Konner: Compare Klass's "Babytalk" (from "The Clinical Years") and "Baby Poop" (from "Issues") from A Not Entirely Benign with Konner's "Pediatrics" (Chapter 8) from Becoming a Doctor. We'll go over Exercise II, and whatever we did not see of Wit, we'll see this day.

Outside Class.

In Class, Thurs, 7/17. Short Talk 22: Klass: From "The Clinical Years" in A Not Entirely Benign: "Invasions; 007s; Enough to Make You Sick; The Prize in the Jacker Box;" Short Talk 23: Klass: From "The Clinical Years" in A Not Entirely Benign: "Stress and Potato Chips, Ignorance; 'Who Knows this Patient?'"; Short Talk 24: Klass: From "Issues" in A Not Entirely Benign: "Power Play, Disasters Past, Nurses."

Outside Class: For Tuesday (7/22). Finish writing Essay #2.

Week 8: Tues, July 22th & 24th

In Class: Tues, 7/22: ESSAY #2 IS DUE. Short Talk 25: Klass: From "Issues" in A Not Entirely Benign: "One in Ten Thousand, India, When Doctors and Patients Speak Different Languages;" Short Talk 26: Klass: From "Issues" in A Not Entirely Benign: "Dying, Curing, Assess and Advise, DNR;" Short Talk 27: Klass: "Putting It Together" and "Conclusion" from A Not Entirely Benign .

Outside Class: Prepare for Final

In Class: Thurs, 7/24: An in-class "open book" book review comparing Melvin Konner's Becoming a Doctor and Perri Klass's A Not Entirely Benign Procedure, together with an in-class film review essay on a choice of 1) The Pleasure of Finding Things Out and Last Journey of a Genius; 2) Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude; or 3) Wit.

Contact Ellen Moody.
Pagemaster: Jim Moody.
Page Last Updated 17 May 2003.